执政党

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执政党,是一个国家政府中获得政权政党,一般是国家元首政府首脑或地方行政长官所属的政党,或者是其他形式而掌握执政权的政党。

标准的议会民主国家中,执政党是指实际控制立法行政权力的政党,政治下的执政权力一般限于国家治理,不是能真正掌握国家建制的权力,因为单一政党及其政治家无法代表绝对多数政治力量。民主国家的执政党政治人物在担任国家及地方政府重要职务时,拥有依法组织政府和制定政策的权力,同时执政党负起政治责任,以维护执政权,否则会在下次选举中成为在野党甚至丧失国家层面的政治活动地位。在政党轮替中与执政党相反的是在野党,即在国家机关中拥有席位,有政治地位的政党,或反对党,即广义上反对执政党的政党。

总统制[编辑]

总统制的国家,则以总统所属的政党作为执政党,总统兼任国家元首和政府首脑。如美国墨西哥巴西阿根廷智利哥伦比亚菲律宾南韩。执政党在议会未必是多数党,或拥有占多数的执政联盟,拥有行政权力,属行政主导。政治较为稳定,总统受到任期保障,除非犯下严重罪行,否则难以被赶下台,而民主国家的议会拥有弹劾总统的权力。

实行总统制的国家[编辑]

实行总统制的政权,多集中在美洲非洲中亚,总统制以美国为代表。

实行总统制但总理为超级部长的国家[编辑]

实行总统制但设最高领袖的国家[编辑]

实行总统制的未被普遍承认的国家[编辑]

半总统制[编辑]

半总统制又称双首长制的国家,拥有行政权的总统和领导内阁的总理共同行使政治权力,总统与总理并非一定属同一政党,但总理的权力一般是基于其政党在议会是否维持多数,如:中华民国。而中华民国设置总统却不设总理,取而代之的是行政院院长,且总统行政院长通常同属一个政党,另依据中华民国宪法第55条规定:行政院院长,由总统提名,经立法院同意任命之。后中华民国宪法增修条文第三条改由行政院院长由总统直接任命之。

总统优势制[编辑]

总统拥有最高的行政权力,可以不经国会同意,迳行任免总理(多为同一政党),再由总理组成内阁。所以阁揆必须受总统领导。阁揆由总统任命、免除、替换,也不须征询国会的意见,阁揆惟有代表政府,接受国会的质询,其职位更类似于一个超级部长。国会可以行使倒阁权,但总统通常也有权解散国会。实行国家如下:

双轨制[编辑]

总统提名总理和内阁须咨询国会、得到国会的同意或依惯例任命议会最大党主席为总理,内阁与总统互不隶属,当两者分属不同政党时总统将丧失部份或全部权力。只有国会有权撤换总理和内阁,但总统有权解散国会。实行国家如下:

内阁制[编辑]

内阁制君主立宪制国家的政府需要经公民直接选举国会议员,再由国会多数党作为执政党。现时行两院制的国家,多数会以下议院多数,作为执政基础,政府亦需要获下议院的多数才能继续执政。

若有一党赢得国会下议院过半数席次并自行组阁,该党即为执政党,如英国日本;若无任一政党席次过半,则各参与联合政府的政党皆为执政党,如德国意大利;若数个政党组成联盟的国家内,赢得最多议席的政党占据了主导优势,如马来西亚

完整的议会共和制度[编辑]

混合的议会共和制度[编辑]

具有礼仪/非执行君主的议会制君主立宪制[编辑]

君主掌握实权的议会制君主立宪制国家[编辑]

混合制[编辑]

也因实行总统内阁制,总统由议会选出,但握有实际行政权力,如缅甸联邦共和国南非共和国博茨瓦纳共和国

混合制的总统、议会共和制度[编辑]

君主独裁[编辑]

君主专制独裁国家,政权为君主绝对掌控,如沙乌地阿拉伯阿曼。这些国家政权不会有政党存在。

君主掌握实权的君主独裁制国家[编辑]

共和独裁[编辑]

一党独大一党执政的国家,只有一个具支配地位的合法执政党,反对党长期处于在野地位且无机会执政,部分国家不允许具竞争性的政党存在,如俄罗斯白俄罗斯亚塞拜然土耳其叙利亚叶门新加坡土库曼斯坦乌兹别克斯坦哈萨克斯坦辛巴威苏丹厄利垂亚赤道几内亚坦桑尼亚莫三比克等。

共和国最高领导人掌握实权的共和独裁制国家[编辑]

一党专政国家[编辑]

共产党执政的国家,该国共产党常常是唯一合法的执政党,只不过有时也允许存在一些其他卫星党参政,却不能取得执政地位,属政治花瓶,如朝鲜中华人民共和国越南古巴老挝

现存的一党专政制度的国家[编辑]

参见[编辑]

备注[编辑]

  1. ^ In France, the President chooses but cannot dismiss the Prime Minister, but the National Assembly can remove the Prime Minister from office with a vote of no confidence. The president can also dissolve the National Assembly once.
  2. ^ Following the 19th amendment, Sri Lankan president can only appoint the prime minister following vacating of the position due to loss of confidence of Parliament, death or resignation. And does not hold the power to dismiss the prime minister at will.
  1. ^ 阿富汗总统作为阿富汗的国家元首兼任政府首脑,阿富汗首席执行官只是作为政府首席部长,类似于美国国务卿的职务。
  2. ^ 阿尔扎赫总统作为阿尔扎赫的国家元首兼任政府首脑,此前有阿尔扎赫总理作为政府首脑的职务。2017年2月的公投英语Nagorno-Karabakh constitutional referendum, 2017后废除阿尔扎赫总理职务。[1][2]
  3. ^ 韩国实行总统制,总统为国家元首,总理同时作为政府首脑,总统负责主持政府的对外工作,国会行使对总理的同意权,但总理向总统负责,总统领导内阁。参见韩国政治
  4. ^ 伊朗伊斯兰共和国实行政教合一总统最高领袖同时作为国家元首,总统作为政府首脑,负责主持伊朗政府的对外工作,最高领袖才是伊朗的最高领导人。参见伊朗政治

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ (in Armenian) «Մտադիր եմ շարունակել ծառայել հայրենիքին». Արցախի վարչապետի պաշտոնակատար 1in.am, 13 September 2017
  2. ^ Referendum to create 'Republic of Artsakh' on Europe's fringe EU Observer, 20 February 2017
  3. ^ Kudelia, Serhiy. Presidential activism and government termination in dual-executive Ukraine. Post-Soviet Affairs. 4 May 2018, 34 (4): 246–261. doi:10.1080/1060586X.2018.1465251. 
  4. ^ In Bangladesh, a caretaker government during parliamentary elections. The Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser and a group of neutral, non-partisan advisers chosen from the civil society. During this time, the president has jurisdiction over the defence and foreign affairs ministries.
  5. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  6. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko. From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland. Scandinavian Political Studies. June 2001, 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.  as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the President has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and substantially has not the power to disband the parliament under its own desire. Finland is actually represented by its Prime Minister, and not by its President, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the President even further.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament but does not hold a parliamentary seat, and is immune from a vote of no confidence (as well is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  9. ^ Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino (PDF). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri: 5. July 2012 (意大利语). 
  10. ^ The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".

    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  13. ^ Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino (PDF). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri: 5. July 2012 (意大利语).